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Erotic sculptures on the KandarÓya Mahadeva Temple

Erotic sculptures on the KandarÓya Mahadeva Temple





Artist : Anonymous

Time of : Vidyadhara

Date : approx. between 1025 and 1050

Material : Sandstone
UNESCO World Heritage Site (Dťfinitif) : 1986

Chandela dynasty
Mithunas
Item 12 on 19
Place(s) of worship
Sculpture (Bas-relief)

Area related
Khajur‚ho (India)

Description   

The Khajuraho temples do not contain sexual or erotic art inside the temple or near the deities; however, some external carvings bear erotic art. Also, some of the temples that have two layers of walls have small erotic carvings on the outside of the inner wall. There are many interpretations of the erotic carvings. They portray that, for seeing the deity, one must leave his or her sexual desires outside the temple. They also show that divinity, such as the deities of the temples, is pure like the atman, which is not affected by sexual desires and other characteristics of the physical body. It has been suggested that these suggest tantric sexual practices. Meanwhile, the external curvature and carvings of the temples depict humans, human bodies, and the changes that occur in human bodies, as well as facts of life. Some 10% of the carvings contain sexual themes; those reportedly do not show deities, they show sexual activities between people. The rest depict the everyday life of the common Indian of the time when the carvings were made, and of various activities of other beings. For example, those depictions show women putting on makeup, musicians, potters, farmers, and other folk. Those mundane scenes are all at some distance from the temple deities. A common misconception is that, since the old structures with carvings in Khajuraho are temples, the carvings depict sex between deities.

The three theories of the sculptures are: to serve as a love manual, to celebrate the marriage of Shiva and Parvati, or to express an exuberant celebration of life and creation. The mithunas are depicted in four postures: lavanyamaya (graceful), asakta (amorous), maithuna-rata (coitus), and bhrasta (perverted). The bhrasta mithunas are more pronounced here than anywhere else in Khajuraho.

Another perspective of these carvings is presented by James McConnachie. In his history of the Kamasutra, McConnachie describes the zesty 10% of the Khajuraho sculpture as "the apogee of erotic art" : "Twisting, broad-hipped and high breasted nymphs display their generously contoured and bejewelled bodies on exquisitely worked exterior wall panels. These fleshy apsaras run riot across the surface of the stone, putting on make-up, washing their hair, playing games, dancing, and endlessly knotting and unknotting their girdles ... Beside the heavenly nymphs are serried ranks of griffins, guardian deities and, most notoriously, extravagantly interlocked maithunas, or lovemaking couples".

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Related article(s)   

Tantra
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र "loom, warp" - hence "principle, system, doctrine", from the root tan "stretch, extend"), anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is an esoteric current of Hinduism.
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The Kama Sutra (Sanskrit: कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by Vātsyāyana.
Erotic sculptures on the KandarÓya Mahadeva Temple
Anonyme
Vidyadhara